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Social policy planning and social work skill have strong relationship. For example, if you plan a social policy for persons with disabilities at municipal level, you should work for collecting information on the needs of persons with disabilities. In that case, the skill of social work would be so important to identify their "real" needs. When it comes to Japan, however, social policy planning and social work for persons with disabilities are disconnected. That is partially because many bureaucrats in charge of social policy planning are not trained and skillful not only in terms of social policy planning but also social work. In most cases, generalist bureaucrats have to manage social policy planning process without receiving any specific training.

This paper focuses on how effective trainings can bridge such a gap, with showing an example of a training course for municipal officials in charge of social policy planning for persons with disabilities which was conducted by a prefecture government and was facilitated and supervised by the author. Action research was adopted for the research design methodology. Findings show that many participants were less confident about what they did and needed empowerment training. It is also found that the action research methodology is useful for making the curriculum of this kind of training fit for the participants with different skills and backgrounds. Finally, it is also mentioned that this training successfully led some municipal officials to make better social policy planning into a reality in their respective municipalities.

Presentation slides: TAKEBATA_2009_disability_policy.pdf

This study aims to offer policy implications for improving the performance of self-sufficiency program agencies and the effectiveness of the self-sufficiency program by analyzing the effect of networks. To attain this purpose, the collaborative network structures of 56 local self-sufficiency centers in Seoul, Busan, and Northern Kyongsang Province are identified. And I assess the effectiveness of the network.

The networks are divided along two dimensions. One dimension concerns the network actors and the other concerns the objects exchanged within the networks. As a result the networks are categorized into five types: 'center only information network', 'center only resource network', 'center-local government information network', 'center-local government resource network', and 'center only project network'. I also measure the propensities of these networks in both directions: in and out.

Each network is analyzed by social network analysis methods including sociograms and matrix calculation. The results of the analysis show that the network activity on outward does not influence the performance of self-sufficiency program agencies but the network activity on inward does influence the performance, especially information exchange network does. And 'center only project network' influence only the outcomes of the local self-sufficiency centers' program implementation. The last thing to find is 'center-local government network' does not explain the performance of the centers better than 'center only network'. That means the information and resources which the local government gave to the centers didn't help the performance of centers to improve.

According to these findings, I conclude the network activity is very important to explain the differences of the performance of the centers and to improve the performance of the self-sufficiency program. Finally it is recommended that the high-level local governments and the higher local self-sufficiency centers had better have the role of network hub for both the performance of the self-sufficiency program agency and the effectiveness of the self-sufficiency program.

Under the exhibition of development on the urban village of Taipei, Sheh-Tzyy territory, there are high proportion rate of low incomes, criminal and marriage migration, however, there is no welfare institution set up in this area. The distance of service might takes over 40 minutes by bus. All disadvantaged situation encouraged researchers to work with community over 6 years.

This paper tries to discuss how far the authors as community actors to enter disadvantaged territory and tried to cooperate with local government, public service centre, non-profit organization, university and community organization to provide services, raise funds and, finally, empower the community members to participate and design community vision. The debates of this paper will goes on how far the reluctant community members to against the action of authors on providing service. Also, the transition of the roles on community members from opposition gradually becomes cooperation will be discussed. Finally, in what ways the community actors cooperate with the members to tackle spatial exclusion will be evaluated.

Presentation slides: Chang_2009_community-based_service.pdf