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A number of researches have raised the concern of the affordability of long-term care in industrial countries. This paper seeks to explore these questions: how do the three care systems afford support for an increasing ageing population? What are the outcomes of the different welfare-mixes in long-term care? How are demand and supply balanced? It focuses on examining the way each country has contributed to the long-term care of older people. It argues that the approaches of different countries need to be located and understood within the context of broader welfare state models. This paper also point out the complexities and difficulties of welfare-mix comparisons. This study draws on an identical qualitative cross-national research method on three levels in each country: national, county and municipal. A total of 142 participants interviewed. This study found a precise comparison of mixed care systems remains problematic. The comparison of conditions in this paper, nevertheless, has yielded some findings and conclusions concerning affordability and responsibility. Both England and the Netherlands have experienced retrenchment in the statutory provision of long-term care. "Solidarity" is the core ideology in reshaping the responsibility between the state and society in the Netherlands, whereas in England the responsibility for care between care actors in the system remains unclear. In Taiwan, state intervention has increased, but it has focused more on stimulating the economy and employment, than on replacing the family as the central care agent.

Economic Restructuring and Changing Working/Family Life: Japan and China

The purpose of the panel is to explore the impact of the restructuring of political economy on working/family life in contemporary Japan and China. Although the economic conditions in Japan and mainland China since the 1990s make a sharp contrast, Japan suffering from the prolonged economic setback represented by the term 'the lost decade' and China having rapidly expanded its national economy, both countries have undergone a process of economic restructuring to optimize their economic systems in what has become an increasingly globalized economic environment. In both Japan and mainland China, this economic restructuring at the national level has entailed some changes in the pattern of working and family life that individuals are required to adopt/negotiate in different areas of their own lives, while calling for revision of family policy and labour-related regulations. The panel tries to elucidate the ways in which economic restructuring has transformed the conditions and patterns of working/family life for individuals by discussing different aspects of the labour market and family life in Japan and mainland China.   


Concretely, Takeda's paper examines, by employing discourse analysis, the logic of family policy revision conducted under the name of 'structural reform of the family' in the early 2000s in Japan, and in so doing, discusses the recalibration of the working/family life of individuals (in particular, women) in response to economic restructuring based on neoliberal principles introduced as measures to tackle the economic setback since the 1990s. Yamashita's paper explores the impact of the changing structure of the Japanese labour market, - increasing dualism and income inequality - on women's life in different age cohorts. Liu focuses on narratives of working life and redundancy recounted in life history interviews with women workers in Nanjing, China. Drawing on feminist perspectives of gender and global economic changes, Lieu examine the micro processes which underpinned the outcome of China's economic restructuring, and through a gender-based analysis she shows how and why these women in particular have lost out.

Social policy planning and social work skill have strong relationship. For example, if you plan a social policy for persons with disabilities at municipal level, you should work for collecting information on the needs of persons with disabilities. In that case, the skill of social work would be so important to identify their "real" needs. When it comes to Japan, however, social policy planning and social work for persons with disabilities are disconnected. That is partially because many bureaucrats in charge of social policy planning are not trained and skillful not only in terms of social policy planning but also social work. In most cases, generalist bureaucrats have to manage social policy planning process without receiving any specific training.

This paper focuses on how effective trainings can bridge such a gap, with showing an example of a training course for municipal officials in charge of social policy planning for persons with disabilities which was conducted by a prefecture government and was facilitated and supervised by the author. Action research was adopted for the research design methodology. Findings show that many participants were less confident about what they did and needed empowerment training. It is also found that the action research methodology is useful for making the curriculum of this kind of training fit for the participants with different skills and backgrounds. Finally, it is also mentioned that this training successfully led some municipal officials to make better social policy planning into a reality in their respective municipalities.

Presentation slides: TAKEBATA_2009_disability_policy.pdf

This study aims to offer policy implications for improving the performance of self-sufficiency program agencies and the effectiveness of the self-sufficiency program by analyzing the effect of networks. To attain this purpose, the collaborative network structures of 56 local self-sufficiency centers in Seoul, Busan, and Northern Kyongsang Province are identified. And I assess the effectiveness of the network.

The networks are divided along two dimensions. One dimension concerns the network actors and the other concerns the objects exchanged within the networks. As a result the networks are categorized into five types: 'center only information network', 'center only resource network', 'center-local government information network', 'center-local government resource network', and 'center only project network'. I also measure the propensities of these networks in both directions: in and out.

Each network is analyzed by social network analysis methods including sociograms and matrix calculation. The results of the analysis show that the network activity on outward does not influence the performance of self-sufficiency program agencies but the network activity on inward does influence the performance, especially information exchange network does. And 'center only project network' influence only the outcomes of the local self-sufficiency centers' program implementation. The last thing to find is 'center-local government network' does not explain the performance of the centers better than 'center only network'. That means the information and resources which the local government gave to the centers didn't help the performance of centers to improve.

According to these findings, I conclude the network activity is very important to explain the differences of the performance of the centers and to improve the performance of the self-sufficiency program. Finally it is recommended that the high-level local governments and the higher local self-sufficiency centers had better have the role of network hub for both the performance of the self-sufficiency program agency and the effectiveness of the self-sufficiency program.

Under the exhibition of development on the urban village of Taipei, Sheh-Tzyy territory, there are high proportion rate of low incomes, criminal and marriage migration, however, there is no welfare institution set up in this area. The distance of service might takes over 40 minutes by bus. All disadvantaged situation encouraged researchers to work with community over 6 years.

This paper tries to discuss how far the authors as community actors to enter disadvantaged territory and tried to cooperate with local government, public service centre, non-profit organization, university and community organization to provide services, raise funds and, finally, empower the community members to participate and design community vision. The debates of this paper will goes on how far the reluctant community members to against the action of authors on providing service. Also, the transition of the roles on community members from opposition gradually becomes cooperation will be discussed. Finally, in what ways the community actors cooperate with the members to tackle spatial exclusion will be evaluated.

Presentation slides: Chang_2009_community-based_service.pdf

The "Care Voucher for the Aged" program introduced in May, 2007 is the first demand-side subsidy policy that aims to extend user choice and formation of the social service market. The implementation of this voucher program acted as a catalyst that triggered the burning discourse on the privatization and commercialization of social services in Korea. However, there has been a lack of empirical research to identify the operation of market logic when introduced in the service field in Korea.    

As a case study in the field of policy implementation research, this study focuses on how the logic of consumer choice and provider competition operates on the front line of policy processing. To find the implementation process of the program, 39 interview data were analyzed, including voucher users, care workers, social workers in 4 agencies and local public officers in one of the district in Seoul, and relevant officials from the Ministry for Health, Welfare and Family affairs and the Center for Social Service Management.

The main results are as follows: In the level of policy implementation, user choice and competition, which was the main logic behind the implementation of the voucher program, did not occur as expected by policy makers. Instead of the user choosing his/her provider, it was found that the providers were choosing its users. Secondly, the case study found that providers have formed a caucus, called the 'providers cooperation committee' which allocated the local users equally amongst the providers. In this process, local public officers have supported the committee by providing them with a list of users. Such results may be interpreted as a habitual execution from the tradition of supply-side subsidy, rather than the way of implementation in the market system. Thirdly, although voucher users could not choose their preferred agency in the first stage of service, some other choices exists so that users may choose their preferred care-giver and time for service. Finally, the change of agency and care-giver in the way of delivering services were observed. Since the implementation of the provider support system, and the rules and routines accumulated from such practices, have been gradually affecting the characteristics of demand-side subsidy.  

This study opens a window for discussion focusing on the meaning of choice as policy implication and user practice, and the nature of the relationship between the government and private service agency in the social service market.  

Improving the provision of long-term care is one of the big challenges for the welfare system in many advanced economies including Germany and Japan. We have to face the fact of an aging population and financial problems in supporting the growing number of people in need of care. And we have to acknowledge that families particularly women can no longer be the main institutions responsible for taking care of their elderly, sick or disabled relatives. Therefore, new solutions for the allocation of resources and the provision of good quality care have to be developed.

In our presentation, we address the level of organisations providing care and show some innovative ways in dealing with the new demands on the provision of care. Even though different institutional frameworks and regulations have a strong impact on the development of care services and the quality of care in both countries, there are many similar ways in which care providers try to restructure their organisation and to improve the quality of care provided by their care workers.Using the empirical evidence of our case studies in both countries and the results of analysis of survey data for Japanese care workers, we address the following questions;

  • What are the organisational innovations the providers of elderly care services are developing to respond to new demands?
  • How can these innovations improve the provision of elderly care?
  • What knowledge is needed in improving the quality of care?
  • What management practices are effective for developing the knowledge base among care workers?

In spite of different institutional frameworks, we find many similarities in the direction of change in Germany and Japan which might be worth exploring for other counties to find effective solutions.

Presentation slides: Goldmann_Nishikawa_2009_elderly_care.pdf

Several theorists - most notably Holliday - have argued that social policy in East Asia can be seen as distinctive because of its productive intent. This claim has not been exposed to sustained comparative empirical examination, partly because typologies of welfare are still largely drawn on the basis of measures of the protective, rather than productive, intent of welfare policies and partly because of a paucity of comparable data on East Asian nations. Here we present a classification of welfare state types that incorporates both the productive and protective elements of social policy. Using fuzzy set ideal-type analysis we explore data for a sample of 23 OECD countries in three time periods - 1994, 1998 and 2003 - including two key East Asian nations (Japan and South Korea). Our findings provide no evidence for the claim that East Asian nations offer a distinctive focus on productive welfare. Indeed, we argue that the USA provides the best example of the productive welfare type and, moreover, that Korea and Japan have moved away from this model in recent years. Meanwhile, we find that some other nations - notably the Scandinavian states - have begun to combine the productive and protective elements of welfare in a way that contradicts earlier claims that the two represent mutually exclusive directions for welfare states.

Full paper: Hudson_Kuhner_2009_productive_welfare.pdf

The Asian financial crisis of the late 1990s has provided not only the threats to the national economies in the region but also the unique opportunities to reform their welfare provisions. But the path that each country has taken in response to the increasingly globalised pressure is not necessarily uniform and in fact reflects a significant degree of diversity. This paper traces this development and examines whether countries in the region begin to develop their social policy provisions beyond the functional imperatives for economic development. Whether or not high levels of welfare spending harms economic performance has long been at the centre of debate within the welfare state development literature both at a theoretical and empirical level. While there has been no agreement on this debate, the emergence of the welfare state in East Asia with low levels of social spending and high economic growth rates with relatively good welfare outcomes has led some commentators to argue that the countries in the region provide a unique model of welfare arrangements, one of the most convincing, to date, has been the East Asian Productivist Welfare Regime. However, the productivist notion of welfare state development in East Asia has been increasingly problematic. Taking the cases of Japan, Taiwan, and South Korea, this essay aims to contribute to this debate both at the theoretical and empirical level by critically examining the theoretical usefulness of the productivist/developmental approach and testing the hypothesis of whether or not social policy in the region is still largely framed by economic necessity.

This paper is to study the effect of globalization on welfare expenditures, especially expenditures for labor market programs, in three welfare regimes and the so-called East -Asian welfare regime.

There is generally a large body of researches(Sainsbury, 1999; Shin, 2000; Offe, 1987; Martin, 1998; Lee, 2003) insisting that globalization drove welfare states to active programs, so-called, 'back-to-work' programs(i.e. job training) out of passive programs for supporting the unemployed . However, empirical studies did not arrive to a consensus.

This paper is to analyze whether all the welfare states of the advanced industrial world, coping with globalization, directed their efforts towards active programs from passive ones. If not, how differently did they adapt to globalization? Which states spent more on active labor market programs and which states did not?

Also, what was the response of the East -Asian welfare regime to globalization? How did it differ from mature welfare states?

In this paper, seventeen OECD member states including Korea and Japan will be classify into the 'three welfare regimes'(Esping-Anderson, 1990) and East-Asian welfare regime for the institutional differences among welfare states to be considered. And we will perform multiple regression analyses to find out the effect of globalization on expenditures for labor market programs.

This paper tries to show how differently the East Asian welfare regime behaved in comparison with traditional welfare states in coping with globalization and to focus efforts on elaborating the analysis methods in order to assess an independent effect of globalization on expenditures on labor market programs.





Esping-Andersen. 1990. The Three Worlds of Welfare Capitalism. Princeton University Press.

Lee, Seok-Won. (2003). "Globalization and Welfare Policy: Empirical Analysis on OECD countries". Korean Policy Studies Review. vol. 12-1.

Martin, John, P. (1998). "What works among active labour market policies: Evidence from OECD countries' experiences". Labour Market and Social Policy Occasional Papers 35. Paris: OECD.

Offe, Claus. (1987). "Democracy against Welfare State?". Political Theory, vol. 15-4. 

Sainsbury, Roy. (1999). "The Aims of Social Security", in John Ditch, Introduction to Social Security: Policies, Benefits and Poverty. London: Routledge.

Shin, Dong-Myun. (2000). "Economic policy and social policy: policy-linkages in an era of globalization". International Social Welfare. vol. 9.